Rocks on Mars

March 12, 2013 | 11:44 a.m.

The rock at left, seen by Opportunity rover on Mars, is formed from sulfate-rich sandstone, cemented in the presence of water, scientists say, but this environment likely was not habitable -- due to extreme salinity and acidity of the water. But the rock at right, seen by Curiosity, indicates an ancient habitable environment:  neutral pH, chemical gradients that would have created energy for microbes, and a distinctly low salinity, which would have helped metabolism if microorganisms had ever been present. (NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/MSSS)

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